About 20-30 percent of cases of infertility are associated with irregular ovulation or its absence. As a rule, problems with ovulation are quite noticeable – the first main signal is irregular menstruation.
If the cycle lasts sometimes 20 days, sometimes 40 days, ovulation does not occur regularly – it is worth starting to sound an alarm.
The first alarming signs that a woman can not get pregnant
The first suspicious sign is an extended menstrual cycle (which lasts more than 35 days) or amenorrhea. This ovulation disorder is treated quite easily. The doctor can carry out stimulation of ovaries or ovulation with the help of hormonal preparations. In the case of polycystic ovaries, tablets are given (clomiphene citrate). If you fail to get pregnant, or if additional tests show a deficiency of pituitary hormones, you will be injected with special medicines.
If the problem with pregnancy is accompanied by symptoms such as acne, male hair, menstrual irregularities, the problem may be in the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). This is the most common endocrine cause of infertility – it occurs in every third woman with ovulation disorders. Treatment usually involves the introduction of drugs that stimulate the ovaries to ovulate. The success of such therapy is 80 percent.
Polyps in the uterus
Polyps are another cause of infertility. As a rule, polyps do not give any symptoms. But over time they begin to grow, which leads to bloody discharge from the vagina after sexual intercourse, as well as to prolonged and painful menstruation. Polyps in the uterus are dangerous because they often make pregnancy difficult, or cause miscarriages.
Treatment of polyps of the uterus begins with several months of hormonal therapy. If this does not bring good results, and the polyps do not disappear, the doctor can offer curettage or a more modern way of treating the polyp uterus – hysteroscopy. Curettage is performed under general anesthesia, and the material is tested for the presence of cancer cells. After the operation on the polyps you will have to lie in the hospital for several days to restore the body. Hysteroscopy allows you to remove polyps immediately after the diagnostic test. If tumor cells are found in them, it will be necessary to make a hysterectomy, that is, to remove the uterus.
Remember that it’s easiest to remove small polyps, so you should regularly undergo a gynecologist check-up to identify them at an early stage. In general terms, the polyps in the uterus rarely grow into a malignant tumor and, in general, are easily treatable.
Problems with fallopian tubes
Problems with uterine tubes, like polyps, are a very common cause of infertility. To assess the patency of the fallopian tubes, a special study – hysterosalpingogram, or laparoscopy – should be performed.
Occlusion of the fallopian tubes rarely gives in to surgical treatment, and any surgical intervention carries the risk of subsequent adhesions.
The doctor can only prescribe physiotherapy – mud treatment, physical procedures, baths, etc. Like polyps, problems with uterine tubes are most often treated by women with traditional medicine.
Problems with pregnancy can also result from the fact that one of the fallopian tubes does not work at all. This is usually the result of an ectopic pregnancy or an early abortion. Nevertheless, a woman with a single fallopian tube can become pregnant – naturally or with the help of a specialist.
Severe menstrual cramps, pain during intercourse and problems with conception can be a signal that a woman suffers from endometriosis. This disease occurs in every 10 women of childbearing age. It is believed that endometriosis is the cause of about 30 percent of cases of female infertility. Endometriosis, simply put, is a problem with the proliferation of uterine tissues (the so-called endometrium) outside the uterine cavity. Endometrial tissue can spread to the ovaries, fallopian tubes, peritoneum, into the vagina, urinary tract and even into the gastrointestinal tract. Like polyps, endometriosis arises from the fact that the hormonal system is not working properly. Therefore, the patient needs to prescribe medications that normalize the glands.
In the treatment of endometriosis, the operational method comes to the fore. Thanks to laparoscopic surgery, you will remove anatomical changes and eliminate pain.
Increasingly reproductive problems contribute to infection of chlamydia in the body. American studies show that chlamydia is the most common bacterial infection transmitted sexually. Nevertheless, many cases of infection are not detected, since chlamydia is a “silent infection”, which usually does not give any obvious symptoms. At half of the women infected with chlamydias, erosions, cysts, polyps in a uterus and an inflammation are formed. Fortunately, chlamydia can be successfully treated with antibiotics.
Hyperprolactinemia is a disease in which an increased secretion of the hormone prolactin occurs. This hormone is responsible for lactation, and blocks the hormones responsible for ovulation and menstruation. However, if in the body of a woman there is an excess of prolactin outside the period of feeding, the ability to conceive decreases. Often, the elevated level of this hormone is the result of stress, exercise, irregular sex life or taking certain medications, such as antidepressants or remedies for stomach ulcers. Sometimes, hyperprolactinaemia can lead to a benign pituitary tumor, which, depending on the size, is removed surgically or with the help of chemotherapy.
Changes in the uterus
All kinds of neoplasms in the uterus appear most often after frequent miscarriages and premature births. These changes can also be congenital – for example, septa in the uterus or double uterus. In each of these cases, you can conceive and give birth to a healthy child. However, at the same time, the woman is at considerable risk.
Among the acquired defects, the most common is myoma – a benign uterine tumor. If it is small, it does not give any symptoms. Myoma is removed surgically. After surgery, however, there is a risk of scarring, which can also lead to difficulties with conception. Therefore, it is best to treat myoma with non-invasive methods – medications, folk remedies, physiotherapy.
Infertility can be caused by oncological diseases and the consequences of their treatment. The likelihood that therapy will affect the fertility of a woman depends on the type of cancer, the method of treatment, and the age of the patient. Sometimes the cancer requires removal of the uterus or even ovaries – of course, after such an operation, there can be no question of any pregnancy. Chemotherapy can cause hormonal disorders and problems with the functioning of the ovaries and fallopian tubes. Side effect may be too early menopause, even if immediately after treatment managed to maintain fertility. To preserve the ability to conceive, doctors recommend freezing eggs or embryos.
If, despite the positive results of all analyzes of both partners, the couple can not have offspring, doctors diagnose idiopathic infertility (infertility of unknown origin). In this it is recommended to use artificial insemination. Scientific research shows that the birth rate is affected by smoking, alcohol, stress, drugs and overweight.